The 1860s

1860   1861   1862   1863   1864  
1865   1866   1867   1868   1869  


Agitated over the government of the United States, South Carolina adopted an ordinance of secession. By early the next year, six other southern states, Texas, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Louisiana, followed suit and seceded. They drafted a constitution and formed the Confederate States of America. President-elect Lincoln and the president at the time, James Buchanan, declared such actions illegal.


Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, sparking a much feared war. Administration representatives spedily visited the governors of North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland and convinced each to avoid joining the Confederacy if it meant monetary retribution among other things. Secession sentiment was very strong in each state, but none seceded following the visitations.


The President appointed Major General George B. McClellan as the general-in-chief of the Union armies. It seemed as though the Union would lose the war, especially at its early disadvantages. With McClellan in charge, the Union counterattack stalled the Confederate advance through the East coast in Maryland. McClellan refused to strike CS General Lee’s forces as they retreated, provoking Lincoln to replace him with Ambrose Burnside. Republicans lost many seats in Congress with the wide dissatisfaction of the US Government.


President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, "freeing all slaves" in the Confederate States, thereby undermining the authority of the Confederate government.Union forces dwindled, however, and the Confederate troops advanced through Virginia. Drawn out battles ruined landscapes in New Orleans. "Operation Havana" began, which recruited over ten thousand Cuban soldiers to the Confederacy. The Treaty of Fredericksburg was signed by Presidents Lincoln and Davis, issuing an absolute ceasefire.


Aided by Confederate troops and Cuban nationalist Calixto García, Cuba gained independence from Spain, only to be captured as the eighth "Confederate State" by President Davis. President Lincoln lost the 1864 election to Democrat George B. McClellan. Cuba became an essential economic hub for the Southern States.


McClellan repeatedly threatened war against the CSA, but no action is taken. The tide of politics sent the message that a peace treaty is desired. President Davis rejected all peace treaties involving an end to the profitable slave trade. The nervous ceaseful continued as McClellan vetoed all legislation from Congress.


The Civil Rights Bill is vetoed by President McClellan, only to be overridden by Congress. The US President's popularity floundered as Radical Republicans win landslide victories in the mid-term elections. Revolts sprang up in Cuba, only to be forcefully put down by Confederate generals.


Tension increased further between the two Americas as President Davis was replaced by the more militant Alexander Stephens. President McClellan was publically challenged by fellow Democrats in government, including the influential New York Governor Horatio Seymour.


Seymour defeated McClellan in the race for the Democratic nomination as Senator John C. Fremont inched ahead of former Vice President Hannibal Hamlin and General Ulysses S. Grant, winning the Republican Party nomination for himself. Fremont defeated Seymour as the world watched for a final outcome between the two roaring nations.


A referendum took place in Spain as Queen Isabella II is removed from power. The provisional government sought resolve with the CSA after their capture of Cuba. The Treaty of Toledo was signed, illegalizing the Cuban slave trade. Fremont became wildly popular among the left in the United States after ratifying the 15th Amendment, allowing all citizens of color to vote.